Bronchitis In An: Collapsed Lung Recovery
Lungs are paired organs that are located under the rib cage, on either side of the chest. They play a very important role in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. They are lined by a protective two-layered serous membrane called pleura. While the inner membrane is attached to the lungs, the outer one is attached to the chest wall. The space between these two layers is called pleural space. It is filled with a fluid. As the lungs inflate and deflate during the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, the fluid within these membranes helps these two layers slide over each other.
- When the lungs inflate or expand by increasing the size of the chest cavity, it results in a negative (vacuum) pressure in the pleural space.
- If air gets collected within the pleural space, it causes pressure to build up over the lungs.
- If the pressure in the pleural space is equal to the pressure outside the body, the lungs collapse as they are unable to expand during inhalation.
- This condition is medically referred to as pneumothorax.
Respiratory Infection: The individual affected with this infection will have croup, which is a violent, hacking cough that may produce little or no mucus. The cough can progress from a dry cough to productive cough with mucus. This cough often worsens at night. Nasal congestion, wheezing, difficulty in breathing, and sore throat are some of the symptoms of walking pneumonia. Once the cold gets worse and the disease settles into the chest, it can cause chest congestion and pain. In some cases, people with walking pneumonia may have bronchitis, which is caused by the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi.
What is Viral Bronchitis
Viral bronchitis is caused by the virus (family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses)) that also causes common cold and influenza (flu). A person suffers from bronchitis when the viral infection, causing cold and flu, reaches the lungs and affects the bronchi. People having a weak immune system are more prone to contracting viral infection. When the infection reaches the airways, mucus is formed, blocking the airways. The mucus built up in the airways causes difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, etc.
Treating symptoms is very difficult. This is because, many times, it is a nosocomial infection and the organism is highly resistant to many antibiotics and medications. The Klebsiella pneumoniae treatment includes use of antibiotics like aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Many patients show a good response to third generation drugs like amikin, tobramycin, clavulanate, aztreonam, gentamicin, etc.
Simple Home Remedy
Coughing at night can be indeed annoying, but an easy way to stop it would be to use Vicks VapoRub (Grease-less). A small of bottle of Vicks VapoRub is not at all costly, and is available at various drugstores. Firstly, soak a cloth in warm water and then use it to clean the bottom of the feet. Take some amount of VapoRub from the bottle and apply it evenly to the soles of the patient's feet. Applying it in excessive amounts will make it wet and cause discomfort to the patient. After applying it carefully, ask the patient to wear thick woolen socks.
Why Do We Need to Cough Up Mucus?
Though expectoration is a mechanism that the body employs for expelling foreign substances, it could sometimes be a symptom of a health problem. Scroll down to find out about the medical conditions that may cause accumulation of phlegm.
- Small or a partial collapse occurs when a small amount of air collects between the lungs and the chest wall.
- This might not be a medical emergency, but the dip in the levels of oxygen in the blood is most likely to give rise to shortness of breath.
- The symptoms are severe when a large amount of air collects in the pleural space, thereby putting a lot of pressure on the lungs and the heart.
- Under such circumstances, the affected individual is likely to experience symptoms such as:
- Causes Numerous reasons can cause collection of air/gas around the lungs.
- The environment stuck can be air from outside the body or from the lung itself.
It's important for you to know the difference between the symptoms of a regular seasonal cold and the flu. If you wake up sneezing and coughing, with a fever and feeling like you don't want to move out of bed, you could just be suffering from a cold that will last a couple of days and pass, or you could have a respiratory infection that will just get worse without treatment.
Excessive Coughing: The infant experiences frequent bouts of hacking and coughing. The actual recurring stubborn cough, also negatively has an effect on the voice. The cough will be your body's response to accumulated mucus in the lungs or perhaps the chest. The words becomes hoarse and also the body will try to get rid of mucus buildup through coughing.
- Treatment of bronchitis involves the intake of certain medications that are prescribed depending upon what is actually causing the bronchitis.
- No matter what bronchitis medication is prescribed, smokers need to quit their unhealthy habit of lighting the cigarette.
- Tobacco smoke is bound to worsen bronchitis, and therefore smoking cigarettes has to be stopped immediately.
- Patients with chronic bronchitis should not hesitate or feel shy to wear masks whenever outdoors.
- This will minimize exposure to air pollutants, thereby helping to manage this condition more effectively.
In today's times, the deteriorating quality of air due to the release of gas and toxic chemicals into the atmosphere also increases the risk of bronchitis, in both children and adults. Industrial dusts and emission of smoke from vehicles are the ones that actually pollute the air. Inhaling this polluted air, which is common in developing and developed countries, can inflame the bronchial tubes, eventually causing respiratory problems like bronchitis.
Spontaneous: This has unexpected symptoms and is not a result of continual injury to lungs. It has two types - primary and secondary. The former is observed in people who do not have any medical history of any lung disease. Smoking is considered as its chief cause. Proximity to loud sound, scuba diving, sudden change in atmospheric pressure, and so forth., can be some other contributing factors. The latter will be observed in people who already suffer from a lung problem, such as COPD, asthma, and so forth. COPD is seen to be the most common reason.
Types of Infant Bronchitis
Bronchitis in infants can be either acute or chronic; In acute respiratory disease, the onset of an infection is sudden. Although, this is a severe form of bronchitis, the infection lasts for a short while. On the other hand, in chronic respiratory disease, the infection gradually invades the airways, which usually lasts for a long time.
- Treatment Medical conditions such as bronchitis and kennel cough should not be ignored.
- Bronchitis, heartworm disease as well as pneumonia have much the same symptoms, therefore, an X-ray would help in the proper diagnosis.
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- Increase your fluid intake to speed up the recovery from viral infections like cold and flu.
- Drink slightly warm water and soups, which will help thin the mucus and facilitate its expulsion.
Dry drowning is not a very common occurrence, i.e., this need not necessarily happen every time your child dives while swimming or every time your baby is in the bath tub. So, parents, please do not necessarily panic, as this is a rare phenomenon, which takes place only when the kid unexpextedly stays underwater for more than a few seconds, so don't negligent on your side, and also keep a watch about your child till he/she is actually done with the bath, and also in the course of diving, (for bigger kids), make sure the actual tutor is actually nearby so that he will keep a watch on the child's movements.
By the lung diseases given in this article we can make out how susceptible this organ is towards getting diseases. So, maintain a healthy diet, stay away from smoking and follow your doctor's advice. Take care!
Recent studies suggest that about 15-20% children are suffering from pollen allergy. Seasonal pollen allergy too can turn into bronchitis when necessary precautionary measures to control the symptoms are put on the back burner. No wonder, people who show allergic reactions from exposure to pollen, dust and mold, are predisposed to bronchitis.
- Pneumothorax, also referred to as lung collapse, is actually the result of unwanted oxygen trapped around the lungs.
- The lung collapses as it cannot expand in the normal fashion, as a result of presence of unwanted air/gas.
- Treatment plans can be grouped into three types, that is, spontaneous, tension, and stress pneumothorax.
- Examine the paragraphs below to be able to know about the causes, symptoms, and also treatment of pneumothorax.
- Tea prepared with lemon, cayenne, honey, and apple cider vinegar can also provide relief in throat soreness.
- Ginger and chamomile tea can also be taken to get relief from a sore and dry throat.
Common Cold and Flu Flu and the common cold are infections of the upper respiratory tract, and so, both can affect the throat, besides producing a host of other symptoms. Both common cold and influenza or flu are viral illnesses that can cause a sore throat, fever, a runny nose, muscle aches, headaches, and a dry, hacking cough. The dry cough caused by upper respiratory infections can give you a feeling of something being stuck in the throat.
The recovery period is generally between 3 - 6 weeks. In case of the elderly, complete recovery requires more time, especially if suffering from other respiratory disorders. In such individuals the recovery time may be more than 12 weeks. The observed recovery times in adults are as follows.
Intake of certain medicines can cause nasty side effects that includes coughing at night. ACE inhibitors prescribed for high blood pressure patients are notorious for causing dry cough at night. Reducing the dosage can be beneficial to relieve cough.
Genus Klebsiella is a part of Klebsiellae tribe that belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae. They are non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria. They are Gram-negative, encapsulated bacteria. The capsule that covers a Klebsiella cell helps provide them resistance to many antibiotics. These bacteria have two types of antigens on the surface of the cell. These antigens include the lipopolysaccharide (O antigen) and the capsular polysaccharide (K antigen). There are around 9 O antigens and 77 K antigens present on a Klebsiella cell. This helps divide the organism into different serotypes based on antigenicity. Among the different species of the genus Klebsiella, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most medically important bacterial species. Klebsiellae are ubiquitous organisms and are able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, pharynx as well as the skin.
COPD Staging and GOLD System
Calculation of COPD life expectancy is mainly based on the degree of severity of the disease, which is measured through a pulmonary function test called spirometry. This test measures the degree of airway obstruction and the capacity of the lungs to hold air and blow it out. As per this test, COPD is classified as mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Usually, the spirometry measurements are given in FEV1/FVC ratios. FEV1 is the forced expiratory volume in one second, which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in the first second of a breath. FVC denotes the forced vital capacity, which is the greatest volume of air that can be breathed out in a whole large breath.
The severity of COPD is determined as per the FEV1 value, measured twice - before and after administering a bronchodilator. The person should be healthy and free of any respiratory tract infection, during the test. He/she must also avoid taking any bronchodilator, for at least 24 hours before the test. This staging system was developed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
- Pneumonia Pneumonia, a common bacterial infection, can also cause bronchitis.
- Difficulty in breathing, chest discomfort, coughing and high fever, are commonly associated with pneumonia.
- Although the bacteria invades the lungs in pneumonia, the bronchial tubes may also show signs of inflammation.
- The reason being, the proliferation of bacteria in pneumonia can also affect the bronchial tubes, leading to bronchitis.
- All the lung diseases are differentiated according to the categories given in the previous section.
- Some of the diseases even carry symptoms or problems of more than one category.
- Following is the list of major lung diseases.
- The list may not be complete, but we have tried to bring most of the major diseases into your knowledge.
Once Klebsiella pneumoniae enters the lungs, it causes many destructive changes in the lungs. It leads to necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, etc. of the lung tissues. This leads to production of a very thick, jelly like mucus that is called 'currant jelly sputum'. The rapid destruction of the lung tissues is the distinguishing factor for Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Initially, Klebsiella pneumoniae will cause a sudden high fever. This fever is generally more than 103F. The fever is accompanied by other symptoms like chills and dizziness. The patient will also cough up the thick currant jelly sputum. This sputum may show streaks of blood.
While COPD encompasses respiratory conditions like emphysema and chronic bronchitis, smoking (includes long-term exposure to secondhand smoke) is cited as the single largest cause of this life-threatening disease. Air pollution and exposure to occupational fumes may also lead to this condition. Even exposure to cooking fire without proper ventilation may lead to COPD, in the long run. Chronic acid reflux or GERD is said to worsen COPD symptoms. In some rare cases, genetic disorders can also lead to this condition.
- On the other hand, dynamic compliance represents pulmonary compliance during periods of gas flow, such as during active inspiration.
- It can be affected by changes in airway resistance, chest wall compliance, and lung compliance.
- Dynamic compliance is always less than or equal to static lung compliance.
- It is calculated using the following equation:
Is almost impossible to come up with accurate figures, as far as life expectancy and medical conditions are concerned. In most cases, the figures are rough estimates that are calculated on the basis of certain factors like the severity of the given medical condition. It may also happen that those in the severe stages of the disease outlive those in mild and moderate stages. Instead of worrying about the figures, it is always better to concentrate on proper treatment and lifestyle changes, especially in a disease like COPD. This will help you manage the symptoms and hinder the progression of the disease to a great extent. Here is a brief overview about the factors that influence the life expectancy of a person, who has been detected with COPD.
The main attribute sign of this illness is a nagging cough or a hacking cough. This is one symptom of the situation that, more often than not, lingers even long after other signs are gone. In most cases, the cough is really a productive one; that means, that creates a eliminate of thicker sputum which may be obvious, bright, green, or yellow-gray. Frequent breathing problems may be wearying for the little ones, and may make chest and stomach muscles blister. And to worsen the cough, additional symptoms that might take place are:In young children, mom and dad can understand all such symptoms, but the story is different when the situation occurs in infants. Given to their age, they are not able to verbally communicate how they are feeling, other than sobbing as well as showing signs of not being at ease and more cranky than normal.